token policy based


There are many ways of securing an API, and using an OAuth token is one among them which is considered to be highly secure. With dotnet core things are tidy and will make implementation easy.

Generating access token

We will be using service to service authorization use case and grant type as client credentials to demo validating and authorizing. Now the basic of getting a access token is use your client id and client secret, mash it up and get the base64 version of clientid:clientsecret and send it across to the token endpoint as below.

    curl --request POST 
    --url https://tokenprovider/oauth/token
    --header 'authorization: Basic <base64 of clientid:clientsecret>' 
    --header 'content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded' 
    --data grant_type=client_credentials 
    --data token_format=jwt 
    --data client_id=27bb5b67-270f-4414-858a-dea819476217 
    --data response_type=token 
    --data 'scope=roles app1.readonly'

In the request if you checkout the last param scope, we are asking for readonly which we will be using if the client has access to on our API.
The response you would get will contain access_token which will be used when accessing any resource of our API. This is how the response would look like

  "access_token": "<token base64 string>",
  "token_type": "bearer",
  "expires_in": 43199,
  "scope": "app1.readonly",
  "jti": "3413de77fcfc4f1f810267df7ff35044"

Validating the token

Now that we have the access token lets figure out how to validate this token using JwtTokenBearer Add the below package

dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer --version 3.1.4

In you Startup.cs add this middleware in ConfigureServices

  services.AddAuthentication(x =>
        x.DefaultAuthenticateScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
        x.DefaultChallengeScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    .AddJwtBearer(x =>
        x.Audience = Configuration["Jwt:Audience"];
        x.Authority = Configuration["Jwt:Authority"];
        x.TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
            ValidateIssuerSigningKey = true,                                                                        
            ValidIssuer = "https://tokenprovider/oauth/token",
            ValidateIssuer = true,
            ValidateAudience = true,
            ValidateLifetime = true,

To get the audience and the authority setting you can check this using token debugger. Paste the access token and you will get information about your token on what algorithm is used to sign the issuer address and the audience along with many other info. We will use aud and iss claims from the token and set the config.

Here is a reminder to add this to Configure method. just reminding coz usually I forget and keep wondering.


Now you can use the [Authorize] attribute on top of your controller class or action method which makes your API accessible only with valid tokens. Here is an example to try out.

  curl --request 
  GET --url https://localhost:5001/movies
  --header 'authorization: bearer <your access token goes here>'   

Authorizing using policy based approach

Now that we know how to validate access token, lets extend this and see how to control access over finer methods or classes using policy-based authorization.

Earlier when retrieving token we had sent a scope saying i need app1.readonly which basically meant I need readonly access token to use the api(audience). To limit the access lets add this below code create policies which can be used in any class or method along with Authorize attribute.

In Startup.cs in ConfigureServices method we have create two new policies one with readonly and another with write access.

  services.AddAuthorization(x =>
            policy => policy.RequireClaim("scope", "app1.readonly"));
            policy => policy.RequireClaim("scope", "app1.readwrite"));

We can use this policy on top and class or method like this

  [Authorize(Policy = "Write")]
  public async Task<ActionResult> Write()
      return Ok("I got Write Access Bro!");

Further reading

You just learnt validating token and policy based access. You can explore about oauth2 and other approaches of securing API below.